HAWAII FORESTRY EXTENSION

Dr. J. B. Friday
CTAHR | University of Hawaiʻi
Cooperative Extension Service
875 Komohana Street
Hilo, HI 96720
Telephone: (808) 969-8254
Fax: (808) 981-5211
Email: jbfriday@hawaii.edu

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Forestry Links

Foresters worldwide communicate and publish information on the internet. The following web sites contain useful information for Hawaii foresters and tree farmers.

Agroforestry

The Cover Crop and Green Manure Database website of the CTAHR Sustainable and Organic Agriculture Program publishes illustrated fact sheets on legume and other cover crops and green manures useful in tropical forestry and agroforestry projects.

Toward Sustainable Agriculture: A Guide for Hawaii's Farmers is a new manual on sustainable agriculture by J. Smith and S. A. El-Swaify, eds. including a chapter on agroforestry and chapters on environmental topics, sustainable crop production, sustainable agriculture production, and marketing. Avaliable both as a hard bound copy or on line adobe reader icon.

The CTAHR publication Trees and Shrubs for Windbreaks in Hawaii (1982) gives information about many popular windbreak species. Note that some species such as ironwood (Casuarina equisetifolia) have become invasive in Hawaii and are no longer recommended.

Agroforestry.net in Hawaii publishes on-line guides to nitrogen fixing trees, alley cropping, windbreaks, traditionally-used agroforestry trees, and more, focusing on Hawaii and the Pacific, and The Overstory, "A free e-mail agroforestry journal about designing, maintaining and utilizing tropical agricultural systems which incorporate trees and shrubs."

Permanent Agricultural Resources publishes a manual on "Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands" as part of the Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. The manual "introduces traditional Pacific Island agroforestry systems and species and provides a species table with over 130 multipurpose trees used in Pacific Island agroforestry, detailing information on uses (food, fodder, timber, etc.) and tree characteristics such as height, growth rates, and habitat requirements."

The Hawaii Agriculture Research Center publishes guides to Wood Ear (Pepeiao) Production in Forest Understory, and Specialty Crop Production in a Forestry Understory: Olena, Maile, Papapalai, and 'Awa.

The USDA National Agroforestry Center, located at the University of Nebraska, and the Association for Temperate Agroforestry, located at the University of Missouri, focus on agroforestry systems for developed countries in temperate regions, particularly windbreaks, silvo-pastoral systems, riparian buffer zones, and alley cropping systems.

The USDA NRCS Pacific Island Area Vegetative Guide lists suitable plant species for cover crops, windbreaks, pastures, riparian areas, tree farms, native species restoration, and wildlife habitat, by rainfall and elevation. Photos included.

The Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry series includes profiles of koa (Acacia koa), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), kamani or tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum), moringa (Moringa oleifera), and sandalwood (Santalum spp.), as well as profiles on bamboo, bananas, coffee, cacao, and many other agroforestry crops.

The Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACTnet), formerly the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, publishes fact sheets on over 80 multi-purpose trees, mainly tropical and mainly nitrogen fixing, and Fact Sheets for Agroforestry for the Pacific, including windbreaks, grazing under coconut plantations, and trees for atolls. Other publications on production and use of multipurpose trees are also available. While FACTnet has ceased active operations, Winrock International will be maintaining the web site.

The World Agroforestry Centre (formerly the International Center for Research in Agroforestry ICRAF), located in Kenya and Indonesia, performs research and develops agroforestry technologies for use in the tropics worldwide. The website features informational articles and slide shows on agroforestry and access to the Agroforestree Database.

The Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD) publishes articles on agroforestry technologies used in the Philippines on the Agroforestry Information Network website.

The entire text of Systems for Sustainability: Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands, edited by W. C. Clarke and R. R. Thaman, is available on-line on the United Nations University Press website. The book includes information on one hundred Pacifc Island agroforestry trees.

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Cost-Share and Financial Assistance Programs

The CTAHR forestry extension site has an extensive chart of government incentive programs for tree-planting or forest management on private lands.

The Hawaii state Division of Forestry and Wildlife administers several programs to assist landowners in Hawaii who are restoring native forests or establishing tree farms, including the state Forest Stewardship Program, and the Watershed Partnership Program. The Kaulunani Urban and Community Forestry Program assists community groups and non-profit organizations in urban forestry projects.

The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service in Hawaii runs several cost-share programs for private landowners in Hawaii for specific purposes, including enhancing environmental quality, improving wildlife habitat, and producing timber.

The US Fish and Wildlife Service in Hawaii administers the Conservation Partnership Program for landowners who wish to restore and improve habitat for threatened, endangered, and rare native Hawaiian species, both plant and animal.

"American Forests is always looking for quality tree-planting projects to be funded by our Global ReLeaf Forests ecosystem restoration program. We are particularly interested in partnering with private and public sector organizations and agencies to plant trees and improve the environment in projects that would otherwise not be feasible. We support projects that plant the right trees in the right places for the right reasons."

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Economics

Financial Analysis for Tree Farming in Hawaii, is a guide for tree farmers in calculating economic costs and benefits of timber plantations. The pamphlet explains how to compare current costs of establishing plantations with anticipated future timber harvests. A companion spreadsheet (MS Excel format, 274 K byte size) with the examples from the pamphlet may be downloaded from the CTAHR web site. The spreadsheet may be used as a template for growers to enter their own data to perform financial analysis for their own tree farms.

Economic Value of Hawaii's Forest Industry in 2001 summarizes the results of a survey of the forest industry in Hawaii and estimates that the total value of the industry in 2001 was $30.7 million with a total full time employment of slightly over 900 jobs.

Characteristics of Hawaii's Retail Forest Industry in 2001, A report on Hawaii's retail forest industry based on information from the 2001 forest industry survey.

Permanent Agricultural Resources publishes a manual on "Economics of Farm Forestry: Financial Evaluation for Landowners" as part of the Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. The manual introduces strategies for determining the financial returns of small-scale forestry and farm forestry projects and includes a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of investing in farm forestry and the steps in determining the costs involved, estimating returns, and comparing farm forestry with other land uses.

FORVAL for Windows is a user-friendly program developed by Mississippi State to help landowners evaluate timberland investments from a financial standpoint. The software calculates Net Present Value, Rate of Return, Equivalent Annual Income, Land Expectation Value, and Benefit/Cost Ratios. Users must supply their own costs and estimates of timber yields and stumpage values.

Information on property taxes for forestry and native forest dedications may be found on the CTAHR forestry web page on government incentive programs for tree-planting or forest management on private lands.

Current federal income tax information for forest landowners is provided by the USDA Forest Service.

The National Timber Tax website, created by Purdue University and the USDA Forest Service, covers specific transactions, tax strategies, financial & estate planning, and new developments in the tax code.

The USDA Forest Service publishes a guide to the most frequently asked questions about federal income taxes on timber adobe reader icon. The guide covers how you handle income from cost-share programs, timber sales, losses, and more.

Articles on Forest Economics and Taxes are published by the University of Georgia.

Time is the bane of forestry investments, when even insignificant costs at the beginning of a rotation grow by Herculean proportions at harvest.
- Thom McEvoy, Positive Impact Forestry, ©2004 Island Press

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Environmental Education

The Hawaii Environmental Education Alliance offers information and networking opportunities to promote environmental education in our state. Their website includes news items, e-news, resources, a database of organizations and schools, contests and grants, and a calendar of events.

The Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife has a website for educators featuring coloring books about Hawaii's forest birds and endangered animals.

The Kokee Natural History Museum "provides interpretive programs and exhibitions about Kaua'i' s ecology, geology and climatology."

Ahahui Malama I Ka Lokahi is a Hawaiian group dedicated to preserving native Hawaiian ecosystems.

The Nature Conservancy of Hawaii preserves plants, animals, and natural communities that represent the diversity of life on earth by protectingthe lands and waters they need to survive. Staff and volunteers offer monthly hikes and work trips to Conservancy preserves on Molokai, Maui, and Oahu.

Project Learning Tree "is ... an environmental education program for educators working with students in Pre-K through grade 12. PLT helps students gain awareness and knowledge of the natural and built environment, their place within it, as well as their responsibility for it." The PLT program has been widely used in the United States and abroad, including in Hawaii and the American-affiliated Pacific Islands.

The Iliahi Foundation "restores and preserves groves of rare and endangered species of iliahi sandalwood and other native trees and plants in Hawaii."

Senegalese conservationist Baba Dioum states, "In the end we will conserve only what we love. We love only what we understand and we will understand only what we are taught.'

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Forest Certification

The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international organization developing guidelines and criteria for "environmentally appropriate and socially beneficial" forestry worldwide. Certification organizations accredited by the Forest Stewardship Council include SmartWood and Scientific Certification Systems (SCS).

The American Tree Farm System is a national association of non-industrial, private tree growers throughout the United States. Tree farmers subscribe to environmental principles and tree farms are regularly inspected by volunteer foresters.

The American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA), "the national trade association of the forest, paper, and wood products industries," sponsors the Sustainable Forestry Initiative, a set of environmental standards for industrial forestry in the United States.

The Green Tag Forestry system is a "third-party certification that was developed by the National Forestry Association in cooperation with the Association of Consulting Foresters and the National Woodland Owners Association. It is national in scope and the only program that is intended solely for use by private forest landowners. The program complements those sponsored by American Tree Farm and Forest Stewardship Council. It is also similar in some respects to the forest industry's Sustainable Forestry Initiative and State/Federal Forest Stewardship Incentive Programs."

"The Certified Forest Products Council is an independent, not-for-profit, voluntary initiative committed to promoting responsible forest products buying practices throughout North America in an effort to improve forest management practices worldwide." The Council supports the FSC standards.

PEFC is the world's largest forest certification system. “Our credible standards seek to transform the way forests are managed globally – and locally - to ensure that all of us can enjoy the environmental, social and economic benefits that forests offer.”

Forest Certification Watch is an independant newsletter and website with information on forest certification, carbon sequestration, and sustainable forestry.

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Forestry Watershed Hydrology

A presentation by Dr. Travis Idol reviews our current knowledge of how vegetation affects watershed function in Hawaii (originally presented at the 2006 Hawaii Association of Watershed Partnerships symposium). Another presentation by Dr. Idol on Hydrologic Effects and of Changes in Forest Structure and Species Composition examines the science behind watershed management.

For information on what you can do to help protect our watersheds and preserve water quality, see the CTAHR Hawaii Water Quality website.

Forests Protect our Watersheds, article by J. B. Friday, Hawaii Forestry News, Vol. 4, Spring 2003

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Forest Tree Seed

Note: Many tree species imported into Hawaii have become pests invading native ecosystems. Before bringing any tree seed into the state, growers are urged to screen species for weediness potential. Growers may check the Hawaii Weed Risk Assessment database (hpwra.org) maintained by UH Botany. Learn more about problems caused by alien invasive species at the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk web site. Note that imports of some trees and some microorganisms are restricted by the State of Hawaii. Hawaii tree growers should check with the Hawaii Department of Agriculture Plant Quarantine branch regarding current regulations. Imports of tree seed from outside of the United States require a permit from the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS).

Seed Technology for Forestry in Hawaii is a 15 page manual (PDF format) published by CTAHR which includes information on importing seed, collecting and handling seed, specific information on seed for common forestry trees in Hawaii, and tree improvement.

Photographs of Hawaiian forest tree seeds are available on the HEAR Seeds and seedlings gallery.

The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation database currently contains descriptions and information on propagation for indigenous and endemic Hawaiian plants.

The Hawaii Island Native Seed Bank Cooperative collects, stores, and distributes seed for native dryland forest restoration on Hawaii Island.

The Hawaii Conservation Alliance publishes information on seed germination ecology and seed storage characteristics of native Hawaiian plants.

The USDA Forest Service Reforestation, Nurseries, and Genetic Resources team publisheds a website that includes the entire text of the Tropical Tree Seed Manual. The manual has chapters on silvics and seed biology of kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum), koa (Acacia koa), kou (Cordia subcordata), milo (Thespesia populnea), and many non-native tropical trees commonly planted in Hawaii.

The USDA Forest Service publishes the Woody Plant Seed Manual on-line. The manual contains general articles on seed technology and information on storage treatment, and germination of many tropical tree species. Chapters on genera such as Acacia may be downloaded individually.

The National Tree Seed Laboratory, operated by the USDA Forest Service, assists public and private forestry nurseries produce high-quality seedings through its programs on seed testing and technical assistance, and through maintaining an international seed bank.

The Native Plant Network propagation protocol database reviews propagation techniques for dozens of both native and exotic tree species for Hawaii.

The Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACTnet), formerly the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, publishes fact sheets on over 80 multi-purpose trees, mainly tropical and mainly nitrogen fixing. Other publications on production and use of multipurpose trees are also available. While FACTnet has ceased active operations, Winrock International will be maintaining the web site.

The FloraBank project in Australia publishes fact sheets on collecting and storing seed for forestry projects, especially seed of native Australian species.

The Danida Forest Seed Centre (DFSC) publishes information on seed collecting, tree improvement, and forest genetics, both for tropical and temperate trees.

The Australian Tree Seed Centre publishes articles on forest tree seed online.

The Forest Genetic Resources web site of the FAO publishes information on conservation of forest genetic resources and tree improvement, including the on-line journal Forest Genetic Resources. Several forest tree species popular in Hawaii are included in the South Pacific Regional Initiative on Forest Genetic Resources (SPRIG).

The Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza (CATIE), in Costa Rica, publishes an online seed database, including articles on the dendrology and seed biology of many tropical forest trees. In Spanish.

METLA, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, publishes a world-wide-web library of forestry information, including a comprehensive section on forest genetics and tree breeding.

The Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) lists tree species which are restricted in international trade. CITES is implemented in the US by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. They publish a timber brochure that explains what CITES listing of timber species means.

The Royal Botanic Gardens-Kew Millennium Seed Bank's bible of seed conservation, SEED CONSERVATION -Turning Science Into Practice, is now available for free on-line in PDF format.

The Kew Gardens website includes a Seed Information Database.

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Forest Tree Species

Note: Many tree species imported into Hawaii have become pests invading native ecosystems. Before bringing any tree seed into the state, growers are urged to screen species for weediness potential. Growers may check with the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment (hpwra.org). Learn more about problems caused by alien invasive species at the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk web site.

Common Forest Trees of Hawaii One-page summaries of information on 150 common forest trees in Hawaii, both native and introduced, from USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 679 by Elbert L. Little Jr. and Roger G. Skolmen, 1989. Currently out of print [May 2010].

CTAHR publishes on-line leaflets on ornamental trees, including aalii (Dodonaea viscosa), hala (Pandanus tectorius), hapuu (Cibotium spp.), naio (Myoporum sandwicense), ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), and wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis).

The University of Hawaii Botany Department's Native Hawaiian Plants web site contains pictures of hundreds of native plants. The Campus Plants site features pictures of many more popular tropical ornamental and forest trees.

The Plants of Hawaii Image Index is a new website including over 40,000 images (high-resolution and copyright-free) of over 900 plant taxa of Hawaii. Included are both native and alien species. Also, there are detailed species reports and Maui-occurrence roadside maps for many of the species. The site was created by Forest and Kim Starr of the USGS Biological Resources Division Haleakala Field Station.

The Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife publishes fact sheets on Hawaii's species of greatest conservation need, including native trees and plants.

The Pacific Islands Area Vegetative Guide by the USDA NRCS lists suitable plant species for cover crops, windbreaks, pastures, riparian areas, tree farms, native species restoration, and wildlife habitat, by rainfall and elevation. Photos included.

The Specialty Crops for Pacific Island Agroforestry series includes profiles of koa (Acacia koa), breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis), kamani or tamanu (Calophyllum inophyllum), moringa (Moringa oleifera), and sandalwood (Santalum spp.), as well as profiles on bamboo, bananas, coffee, cacao, and many other agroforestry crops.           

The Traditional Tree Initiative website contains detailed profiles of agroforestry trees used in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. Trees include Acacia koa (koa), Aleurites moluccana (kukui, candlenut ), Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry ), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (large-leaf mangrove), Calophyllum inophyllum (kamani, beauty leaf), Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood, beach she-oak),  Cocos nucifera (coconut), Citrus, Cordia subcordata (kou), Erythrina variegata (coral tree), Intsia bijuga (vesi), Mangifera indica (mango), Metrosideros polymprpha (ohia), Metroxylon (sago palm), Morinda citrifolia (noni, Indian mulberry), Pterocarpus indicus (narra), Samanea saman (rain tree), Santalum spp. (sandalwoods), Syzygium malaccense (mountain apple), Thespesia populnea (milo), and more.

The Kaahahui o ka Nahelehele supports research and educational, and cultural programs in and for Hawaii’s dryland forests. The site includes many photographs of native Hawaiian plants.

Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii is "today's guide to yesterday's life-sustaining plants carried by early Polynesian voyagers in their canoes." The site includes identification, propagation methods, and cultural uses of the Polynesian introduced agricultural plants, including the trees kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum), kou (Cordia subcordata), kukui (Aluerites moluccana), and milo (Thespesia populnea).

The National Tropical Botanical Garden publishes an on-line gallery of trees and plants in their gardens with photographs and descriptions of the species and their use.

Permanent Agricultural Resources publishes a manual on "Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands" as part of the Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands. The manual "introduces traditional Pacific Island agroforestry systems and species. Provides a species table with over 130 multipurpose trees used in Pacific Island agroforestry, detailing information on uses (food, fodder, timber, etc.) and tree characteristics such as height, growth rates, and habitat requirements. "

The Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website of the Smithsonian Institution is a database of flowering plants and ferns in Hawaii, both native and naturalized. “The present checklist database consists of 153 families, 746 genera, and 2,254 taxa of flowering plants and 28 families, 73 genera, and 214 taxa of ferns and related groups.” The site contains information on the taxonomy, the range of the species, and the conservation status, but not botanical descriptions. Many of the species are illustrated with photographs. The primary sources of information for the site are the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii by Wagner, Herbst, and Sohmer (1999) and Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies by Daniel Palmer (University of Hawaii press, 2003).

The Hawaii Conservation Alliance hosts the Pacific Island Plant Restoration Database, an interactive plant key, designed as a tool to assist managers of Pacific Island restoration projects in selecting plants appropriate for their project outplanting sites in the Pacific Region.

Joseph Rock's 1913 book "The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands" is available for free download from Google Books. File size 19MB, acrobat iconpdf.

Joseph Rock published the first book on The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands in 1913. The book includes photographs of trees and forests in Hawaii that can no longer be seen today. The PDF file acrobat icon is 85 MB and can be downloaded here.

The National Tropical Botanical Garden on Kaua'i hosts a new web-site devoted to breadfruit. The site covers uses, propagation, history, germplasm collection, varieties, resources, and much more.

Forestry Images includes digital images of forestry, forest pests, tree species, silviculture, invasive species, and wildlife, primarily for use in educational programs.

The Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Network (FACTnet), formerly the Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association, has fact sheets on over 80 multi-purpose trees, mainly tropical and mainly nitrogen fixing. Other publications on production and use of multipurpose trees are also available. While FACTnet has ceased active operations, Winrock International will be maintaining the web site.

The USDA Forest Service publishes an on-line manual, Silvics of North America. Tropical species listed include koa (Acacia koa), ironwood (Casuarina spp.), Spanish cedar (Cedrela odorata), Cordia alliodora, tabonuco (Dacroydes excelsa), several Eucalyptus spp., silk oak (Grevillea robusta), ausubo (Manilkara bidentata), paperbark (Melaleuca quinquenervia), ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), monkeypod (Samanea saman), and kiawe (Prosopis pallida).

Purdue University publishes a crop index of new or little used crops, including many tropical fast-growing trees. Most forestry information is from the Handbook of Energy Crops, James A. Duke, 1983 (unpublished).

The Agroforestree Database of the World Agroforestry Centre (formerly the International Center for Research in Agroforestry, ICRAF) contains well-researched summary articles on many agroforestry and forestry species. Summaries include botanical descriptions, ecology and distribution, propagation and management, uses, pests and diseases, and references.

The USDA Forest Service International Institute for Tropical Forestry in Puerto Rico publishes Silvics of Native and Exotic Trees of Puerto Rico and the Caribbean Islands, with information on over 100 common tropical tree species, many of which occur in Hawaii. In Spanish. English versions of a few species may be found on the USDA FS Silvics of North America website.

The USDA Forest Service International Institute for Tropical Forestry and the Office of Graduate Studies of the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez have partnered to digitalize acrobat icon Common Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands by EL Little  and FH Wadsworth, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 249,1964; and acrobat icon Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Second Volume by EL Little, RO Woodbury, and FH Wadsworth, US Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 449, 1974.

The Queensland government publishes information on Hardwoods of Queensland, many of which grow in Hawaii, including Acacia, Cardwellia, Calophyllum, Eucalyptus, Flindersia, Intsia, Koompassia, and Toona.

The Australian Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research publises an on-line "Introduction to the Eucalypts," including extensive discussions of taxonomy and many photographs.

The entire text of Systems for Sustainability: Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands, edited by W. C. Clarke and R. R. Thaman, is available on-line on the United Nations University Press website. The book includes information on one hundred Pacifc Island agroforestry trees.

Plant Resources of Southeast Asia (PROSEA) publishes a series of 19 hard-bound volumes on economically useful trees and plants of Southeast Asia and an on-line database called E-PROSEA, which contains articles on about 6,697 species of trees and plants prepared by a large international team of experts. "All taxa are treated in a similar manner with details on uses, botany, ecology, agronomy or silviculture, genetic resources, breeding, prospects and literature."

PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa) is an international, not-for-profit foundation synthesizing information on the approximately 7,000 useful plants of Tropical Africa and providing wide access to the information through Web databases, Books, CD-Roms and Special Products.

The International Sandalwood Foundation is dedicated to the conservation of sandalwoods and other threatened flora of the Pacific and Asia through education, research and sustainable harvesting programs.

Wagenignen University publishes fact sheets on tropical tree species.

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Forestry Coursework

CTAHR offers undergraduate and graduate courses in agriculture and natural resources through the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management (NREM) UH Manoa CTAHR.

Forestry program at CAFNRM, UH Hilo. Courses include Forest Mensuration (FOR 310), Physiological Ecology of Tropical Forests (FOR 410), and Tropical Forestry and Natural Resource Management (FOR 202).

Forest TEAM program, Hawaii Community College. The Tropical Forestry and Agroforestry Ecosystem Management (Forest TEAM) program at Hawaii Community College in Hilo offers hands-on courses in agroforestry, forestry surveying, geographic information systems, business management, silviculture, and forest pest management.

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Forestry in Hawaii

CTAHR offers undergraduate and graduate courses in agriculture and natural resources and conducts research throughout the state. The CTAHR Office of Communication Services provides access to databases, publications, faculty and staff, ongoing projects, and services provided by the college. Free publications on agriculture and natural resources are available on-line.

The Hawaii Forest Institute is a scientific and educational organization promoting the health and productivity of forests in Hawaii. They publish the Hawaii Forest Journal with articles on health and productivity of Hawaii's forests.

The Hawaii Statewide Forest Action Plan maps out Hawaii’s forest resources from water to trees to native birds to ecosystem services and lays out a plan for the comprehensive forest management of the future.

The Tropical Forestry and Agroforestry Ecosystem Management (Forest TEAM) program at Hawaii Community College in Hilo offers hands-on courses in agroforestry, forestry surveying, geographic information systems, business management, silviculture, and forest pest management.

The Division of Forestry and Wildlife of the State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources is responsible for managing forests on state lands. The website gives information on DOFAW's programs on watersheds, fire management, hunting, conservation, forestry, recreation, and private landowner incentives. Highlights of the web site include publications on timber inventories in Waiakea, Hamakua, and Kauai.

The Hawaii Forestry and Communities Website includes information on tree species used in forestry in Hawaii, typical forest industry related jobs, and a history of forestry in Hawaii.

The Hawaii Department of Agriculture website contains a history of agriculture in Hawaii, which includes some important dates in forestry.

The USDA Forest Service Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry serves Hawaii and the American-affiliated Pacific Islands. Current research focuses on ecosystem restoration, management of invasive species, and tropical forested wetlands, especially mangroves. The Institute also provides forest management services to government agencies and non-governmental organizations throughout the Pacific. A bibliography lists publications since 1958 covering topics from wood technology to silviculture to wildlife biology in Hawaii. Publications are available at libraries or may be ordered from the Pacific Southwest Research Station.

The Hawaii Forest Industry Association (HFIA) is a "non-profit organization founded by and for people interested in managing and maintaining healthy, sustainable and productive forests... HFIA promotes a balance of forest land uses ranging from pristine native forests to areas managed for economically productive purposes." A market report for the eight most popular Hawaiian woods may be downloaded from the web site. The full text of the Hawaii Tropical Forest Recovery Action Plan is also available.

The Hawaii Agriculture Research Center, formerly the Hawaiian Sugar Planter's Association, continues their long association with Hawaii forestry with research in tree improvement of koa and eucalyptus species and production of non-timber forest products.

The Kaahahui o ka Nahelehele supports research and educational, and cultural programs in and for Hawaii’s dryland forests. The site includes many photographs of native Hawaiian plants.

The Hawaii Ecosystems Project is a consortium of Stanford University and the Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. We enable and support research by scientists from institutions worldwide who study questions in forest ecology, ecosystem restoration, pedology, atmospheric chemistry, isotope geochemistry, and related fields at a variety of Hawaii sites."

Research on the ecology and production of Eucalyptus and mixed-species plantations in Hawaii is being carried out at Colorado State University. Photographs, graphs of data and results, and references are available at the web site.

The Iliahi Foundation "restores and preserves groves of rare and endangered species of iliahi sandalwood and other native trees and plants in Hawaii."

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Measurement of Trees and Logs

The Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife publishes local volume equations for Flindersia brayleyana (Queensland maple), Eucalyptus saligna, and Eucalyptus grandis.

Purdue University publishes an on-line manual of Log and Tree Scaling Techniques.

The Georgia Forest Landowner's Manual contains information on measuring standing trees and scaling cut timber.

Virginia Cooperative Extension publishes the Forest Landowner's Guide to The Measurement of Timber and Logs.

Under the Canopy, the forestry newsletter of the University of Alaska, published a clear discussion of log rules and the conversion of board feet to cubic measurements.

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National and International Forestry Organizations

The Society of American Foresters (SAF) is "the national scientific and educational organization representing the forestry profession in the United States." The web site includes general information about forestry, national news regarding forestry and natural resources, and information on forestry education throughout the United States.

The American Tree Farm System is a national association of non-industrial, private tree growers throughout the United States. Tree Farmer Magazine, the System's publication, is "the practical guide to sustainable forestry", and contains tips and information useful to Hawaii tree growers.

The National Woodland Owners Association (NWOA) is a "nationwide organization made up of non-industrial private woodland owners. Membership includes landowners in all 50 states and Canada and also includes affiliations with 33 state and 287 county woodland owner associations throughout the United States. " NWOA provides informatin for memebers and promotes "non-industrial forestry and the best interests of woodland owners."

The American Forests Foundation promote s tree planting nationwide. Their web site includes information on urban forestry, trees and climate change, national forestry policy, and the National Register of Big Trees (Hawaii not included!) They also publish the magazine American Forests.

Forestry Images includes digital images of forestry, forest pests, tree species, silviculture, invasive species, and wildlife, primarily for use in educational programs.

The International Tropical Timber Organization web site contains both updates on the timber trade worldwide and news about tropical forestry. The newsletter Tropical Forest Update is available on-line and by mail.

The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), part of CGIAR, publishes both scientific and socio-economic research papers on international forestry, including many for the tropics. Many publications are available on-line.

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) forestry program website publishes technical and socio-economic reports on international forestry. The website includes a series of Information Notes on selected specific programs and activities in sustainable forest management; the State of the World's Forests 1999, on-line data bases; and "the electronic version of Unasylva, the quarterly international journal of forestry and forest industries published by FAO."

METLA, the Finnish Forest Research Institute, publishes a world-wide-web library of forestry information, including a comprehensive section on forest genetics and tree breeding.

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Native Hawaiian Trees and Plants, Polynesian Introductions

Common Forest Trees of Hawaii One-page summaries of information on 150 common forest trees in Hawaii, both native and introduced, from USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 679 by Elbert L. Little Jr. and Roger G. Skolmen, 1989.

Photographs of many common Hawaii trees may be found on the CTAHR forestry "trees" page.

CTAHR publishes on-line leaflets on ornamental trees, and native trees for landscaping including aalii (Dodonaea viscosa), hala (Pandanus tectorius), hapuu (Cibotium spp.), naio (Myoporum sandwicense), ohia lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), alahee (Psydrax odorata), lonomea (Sapindus oahuensis), nanu (Gardenia brighamii), and wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis).

The Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife publishes fact sheets on Hawaii's species of greatest conservation need, including native trees and plants.

Native Plants Hawaii is a comprehensive and searchable knowledgebase that seeks to promote the understanding and use of native Hawaiian plants.

The Hawaii Conservation Alliance hosts the Pacific Island Plant Restoration Database, an interactive plant key, designed as a tool to assist managers of Pacific Island restoration projects in selecting plants appropriate for their project outplanting sites in the Pacific Region.

The University of Hawaii Botany Department's Native Hawaiian Plants web site contains pictures of hundreds of native plants. The Campus Plants site contains pictures of many more popular tropical ornamental and forest trees. The Alien Plant Studies site describes invasive alien species in Hawaii.

The University of Hawaii Library Science and Technology Reference Department web site lists on-line journals and databases for Pacific Botany and a page on information sources for Traditional Pacific Island Crops.

The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation database currently contains descriptions and information on propagation for indigenous and endemic Hawaiian plants. The plants included in this database have actual or potential value as landscape, lei, medicine, fiber, food, or wood products.

The Bishop Museum publishes a Hawaiian Online Ethnobotany Database with cultural and scientific information about 145 plants commonly used in traditional Hawaiian culture.

The Traditional Tree Initiative website contains detailed profiles of agroforestry trees used in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. Trees include Acacia koa (koa), Aleurites moluccana (kukui, candlenut ), Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry ), Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (large-leaf mangrove), Calophyllum inophyllum (kamani, beauty leaf), Casuarina equisetifolia (ironwood, beach she-oak),  Cocos nucifera (coconut), Citrus, Cordia subcordata (kou), Erythrina variegata (coral tree), Intsia bijuga (vesi), Mangifera indica (mango), Metrosideros polymprpha (ohia), Metroxylon (sago palm), Morinda citrifolia (noni, Indian mulberry), Pterocarpus indicus (narra), Samanea saman (rain tree), Santalum spp. (sandalwoods), Syzygium malaccense (mountain apple), Thespesia populnea (milo), and more.

The Kaahahui o ka Nahelehele supports research and educational, and cultural programs in and for Hawaii’s dryland forests. The site includes many photographs of native Hawaiian plants.

Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii is "today's guide to yesterday's life-sustaining plants carried by early Polynesian voyagers in their canoes." The site includes identification, propagation methods, and cultural uses of the Polynesian introduced agricultural plants, including the trees kamani (Calophyllum inophyllum), kou (Cordia subcordata), kukui (Aluerites moluccana), and milo (Thespesia populnea).

The National Tropical Botanical Garden publishes an on-line gallery of trees and plants in their gardens with photographs and descriptions of the species and their use.

The Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk web site describes the threat that alien invasive plant and animal species constitute to Hawaii's native biota. The site contains descriptions of individual species, maps of their ranges, and outlines current programs to combat them.

The Hawaii Rare Plant Restoration Group’s mission is to prevent the extinction of native Hawaiian plants and provide for their recovery through a cooperative administered off-site plant conservation system in collaboration with on-site management partners to sample, propagate, and reintroduce rare plants, and to advance the preservation of native plants and their habitats through effective communication and public education.

The Pacific Islands Area Vegetative Guide by the USDA NRCS lists suitable plant species for cover crops, windbreaks, pastures, riparian areas, tree farms, native species restoration, and wildlife habitat, by rainfall and elevation. Photos included.

The Plant Extinction Prevention Program’s mission is to protect Hawaii’s rarest native plants from extinction.

The web site for the Amy B. H. Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden in Kona describes ancient Hawaiian agricultural technologies.

Other botanical gardens in Hawaii are described on the University of Hawaii at Manoa library web site.

The Honolulu Board of Water Supply website has information on xeriscaping and native Hawaiian plants suited to different ecololgical regions on Oahu.

The Maui County Planting Plan recommeds native plants for different environmental settings on Maui.

The Native Plant Network propagation protocol database reviews propagation techniques for dozens of both native and exotic tree species for Hawaii.

The Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website of the "The present checklist database consists of 153 families, 746 genera, and 2,254 taxa of flowering plants and 28 families, 73 genera, and 214 taxa of ferns and related groups." The site contains information on the taxonomy, the range of the species, and the conservation status, but not botanical descriptions. Many of the species are illustrated with photographs. The primary sources of information for the site are the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii by Wagner, Herbst, and Sohmer (1999) and Hawaii's Ferns and Fern Allies by Daniel Palmer (University of Hawaii press, 2003).

Joseph Rock's 1913 book "The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands" is available for free download from Google Books. File size 19MB, acrobat iconpdf.

Joseph Rock published the first book on The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands in 1913. The book includes photographs of trees and forests in Hawaii that can no longer be seen today. The PDF file acrobat icon is 85 MB and can be downloaded here.

The Native Hawaiian Flora website contains hundreds of photographs of native Hawaiian plants.

The Native Hawaiian Plant Society on Maui is a volunteer-based nonprofit organization whose mission is to preserve and restore Hawaiian native plants in their native ecosystems.

The Tropical Nursery Manual: A guide to starting and operating a nursery for native and traditional plants (April 2014), developed by USDA Forest Service Reforestation, Nurseries and Genetic Resources (RNGR) Program, is available on-line.  

Flickr.com hosts several galleries of photographs of native Hawaiian plants and includes groups featuring Hawaiian Native Biota, Hawaii’s Wildlife, and a group where users can request identification of native or non-native Hawaiian plants.

The International Sandalwood Foundation is dedicated to the conservation of sandalwoods and other threatened flora of the Pacific and Asia through education, research and sustainable harvesting programs.

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Nurseries

Photographs of Pacific Island forestry and conservation nurseries are on Flickr.

The Tropical Nursery Manual: A guide to starting and operating a nursery for native and traditional plants (April 2014), developed by USDA Forest Service Reforestation, Nurseries and Genetic Resources (RNGR) Program, is available on-line.

The Hawaiian Native Plant Propagation database currently contains descriptions and information on propagation for indigenous and endemic Hawaiian plants. The plants included in this database have actual or potential value as landscape, lei, medicine, fiber, food, or wood products.

CTAHR publishes a free on-line Manual on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus production and inoculation techniques and a book on Arbuscular mycorrhizas - Producing and applying arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum (order blank only).

Native Plants Hawaii is a comprehensive and searchable knowledgebase that seeks to promote the understanding and use of native Hawaiian plants.

The Hawaii State Tree Nursery propagates many different species of native plants, some endangered species, and numerous trees for windbreak purposes. Most windbreak trees are non-native and are sold in dibble tubes or small pots when the trees are approximately 1.5′ – 2.5′ tall. Natives and endangered plants are sold in various container sizes.

The Native Plant Network propagation protocol database reviews propagation techniques for dozens of both native and exotic tree species for Hawaii.

The USDA Forest Service's Reforestation Nurseries and Genetic Resources web site contains full text on-line issues of Tree Planter's Notes and Forest Nursery Notes. Other publications may be ordered, including the six-volume Container Tree Nursery Manual.

The Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative web site publishes information on all phases of nursery production, including seedling health, insects and pests, disease, fertilization, weed control, mycorrhizae, and transplanting. While the focus is on the southeastern United States, much information is applicable in Hawaii.

The UN FAO publishes an on-line manual on Rooting Cuttings of Tropical Trees by K. A. Longman. These techniques have been useful both for domesticating economically valuable species and conserving rare ones.

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Pests and Diseases

Information on forest pests and diseases, including koa wilt and ohia rust, may be found on the CTAHR Forestry Extension website.

Koa Pest and Disease Image Gallery, by Dr. Scot Nelson and Dr. J. B. Friday. Nearly 100 digital photos of pests and diseases of koa (Acacia koa Gray) in Hawaii.

The CTAHR Sustainable Agriculture site features a special section on Sustainable Pest Control for the Tropics. The site includes many presentations from a January 2003 workshop in Hilo, Hawaii.

The CTAHR Knowledge Master describes pests and diseases of many agricultural crops in Hawaii. A few pests of forest trees, such as the black twig borer and Fusarium fungus, are also listed.

Insects may be identified and plant diseases diagnosed for a fee by the CTAHR Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center.

CTAHR publishes on-line extension brochures on many common plant diseases, including diseases of native plants.

The Hawaii Extension Pesticide Programs home page has information on the Pesticide Risk Reduction Education Program (formerly Pesticide Applicator Training), Special Local Need Registrations for Hawaii, and the Hawaii Pesticide Information Retrieval System (HPRIS). HPIRS is an index to agricultural-use pesticide labels licensed for sale in Hawaii by the Hawaii State Department of Agriculture, including some pesticides with forestry and nursery uses.

CTAHR publishes on-line extension entomology presentations on invasive species such as coqui frogs, Erythrina (wili-wili) gall wasp, Myporum (naio) thrips, and more.

The UH Termite Project web page includes information for both builders and homeowners and features pages on naturally durable woods (including some Hawaii-grown woods) and wood preservatives.

The Hawai'i Plant Disease website includes information and on-line diagnosis, photo galleries, discussion groups, and illustrated bulletins on plant diseases and plant health issues, many regarding native and forest tree species, including an article on koa rust.

The Hawaii Host-Pathogen database allows users to search for pathogens that have been found infecting agricultural and native plants in Hawaii, as diagnosed by the CTAHR Agriculture Diagnostic Service Center.

Articles on Acacia koa diseases and associated fungi and koa wilt appear on the University of Hawaii Botany Department web site.

The UH Manoa Botany department website has articles by Dr. Don Gardner on diseases of native Hawaiian plants.

The Hawaii Ecosystems at Risk website has pages featuring plant pathogens of Hawaii.

The Hawaii Department of Agriculture publishes New Pest Advisories to provide information on new pests and diseases such as the Erythrina gall wasp and ohia (Puccinia) rust that have become established in Hawaii.

The Hawaii Department of Agriculture Pesticides Branch posts lists of licensed pesticides and current 24(c) [Special Local Needs] registered pesticides for Hawaii.

The USDA Forest Service Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry works on bio-control of invasive alien plants, particularly strawberry guava or waiawi (Psidium cattleianum), cane tibouchina, and miconia.

The Bugwood Network website contains digital images of forest pests, diseases, and forest health, mainly from the mainland U.S.

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Soils and Fertilizers

The Hawai‘i Soil Atlas is an interactive tool that allows users to quickly locate and identify any soil across the Hawaiian islands, and acquire basic information about each soil.

The soil science web site at CTAHR includes information on soil acidity, composting, organic amendments to soils, soil testing, and soils of Hawaii.

The University of Hawaii NifTAL (Nitrogen Fixation by Tropical Agricultural Legumes) Center page explains the use and benefits of bilogical nitrogen fixation.

CTAHR publishes leaflets on liming, phosphorus applications, and how to take a soil sample for testing. Soil samples may be analyzed at the CTAHR Agricultural Diagnostic Service Center.

The CTAHR manual "Plant Nutrient Management in Hawaii's Soils" outlines basic, practical soil science and explains fertilizer recommendations. The entire text is available on the web, chapter by chapter, and the book is available for sale from the CTAHR publications office.

CTAHR publishes a free on-line Manual on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus production and inoculation techniques and a book on Arbuscular mycorrhizas - Producing and applying arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculum (order blank only).

The USDA NRCS Web Soil Survey allows users to create custom soils maps for any property up to 10,000 acres and print a report listing properties of all soils present. The new Hawaii Island and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park survey data are available here. The Official Series Descriptions page links to taxonomic and technical descriptions and properties of each soil series (Hilo, Keaukaha, etc.) and maps of the extent of each series.

Managed by the CA Soil Resource Lab (UC Davis), the SoilWeb provides links that allow users to access NRCS soil survey information through a web interface, export for use in Google Earth, or download to a smartphone (iphone and droid) app.

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Urban Forestry and Ornamental Trees

CTAHR publishes information on cultivation of different species of ornamental trees common in Hawaii, including native Hawaiian species, and on planting, watering, fertilizing, pruning, and staking and guying landscape trees. Publications are also available on salt and wind tolerance of landscape trees and using trees to save energy.

The University of Hawaii Botany Department's Campus Plants web site features pictures of many popular tropical ornamental and landscape trees and plants.

The University of Hawaii at Manoa landscaping program site features an interactive map of campus plants.

Information on xeriscaping, using dryland plants for landscaping in dry areas, is available from the Maui Department of Water Supply. The Honolulu Board of Water Supply website has information on xeriscaping and native Hawaiian plants suited to different ecological regions on Oahu.

The Kaululani Urban and Community Forestry Program of the Hawaii State Division of Forestry and Wildlife focuses on improving the health and viability of trees in Hawaiian communities through educational programs, financial support in the form of cost-share grants, technical training, Arbor Day promotion and partnerships with the public and private sectors, community groups and non-profit organizations.

The Arbor Day Hawaii website contains information on choosing the right tree and managing urban trees in Hawaii.

The Exceptional Trees of Hawaii webpage includes a database of large, old, or historically significant trees and rules as to how exceptional trees are designated.

The Hawaii County Code recognizes exceptional trees. adobe reader icon

The Maui County Planting Plan recommeds native plants for different environmental settings on Maui.

Information on recognizing and managing hazard trees in urban settings is published by the USDA Forest Service.

The American Forests Foundation promotes tree planting nationwide. Their web site includes information on urban forestry, trees and climate change, national forestry policy, and the National Register of Big Trees (Hawaii not included!) They also publish the magazine American Forests.

The Traditional Tree Initiative website contains detailed profiles of agroforestry trees used in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific with supplemental information on use in urban landscapes. Trees include Acacia koa (koa), Aleurites moluccana (kukui, candlenut ), Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit), Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry ), Calophyllum inophyllum (kamani, beauty leaf),  Cocos nucifera (coconut), Citrus, Cordia subcordata (kou), Erythrina variegata (coral tree), Mangifera indica (mango), Metrosideros polymprpha (ohia), Morinda citrifolia (noni, Indian mulberry), Pterocarpus indicus (narra), Samanea saman (rain tree), Syzygium malaccense (mountain apple), Thespesia populnea (milo), and more. New species are constantly being added to the site.

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Weed Control

Weed Management in Hawaii for Agriculture and Conservation, a new CTAHR website with information for conservation, farmers, ranchers, and homeowners.

CTAHR’S Extension Pesticide Program is CTAHR’s clearinghouse for pesticide use information.

Weeds of Hawaii's Pastures and Natural Areas; An Identification and Management Guide by P. Motooka et al. ©2003, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa. Information on identification, distribution, environmental impact, and chemical management of 146 of the most common weeds in Hawaii.

CTAHR publishes several manuals on weed control, including Woody Plant Control for the Home, Pasture, and Forest; Herbicidal Weed Control Methods for Pastures and Natural Areas of Hawaii, Before You Buy or Apply an Herbicide, and results of field trials of herbicides for the years 1998 to 2001.

Research on weed science in Hawaii by CTAHR's Dr. Joe DeFrank, including information on the use of native grasses for cover crops in tree plantations. Slides of common weeds. Slide shows include research projects on weed control for native Hawaiian plants.

The USDA Forest Service Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry works on bio-control of invasive alien plants, particularly strawberry guava or waiawi (Psidium cattleianum), cane tibouchina, and miconia.

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Wildfire Science and Management

Pacific Fire Exchange is the regional Fire Science Exchange program for the Pacific Islands region, and includes resources on pre- and post-fire management, links to upcoming fire-related webinars and conferences, past and current fire science research, and perspectives of fire on Pacific Islands.

Hawaii Wildfire Management Organization has resources for homeowners, wildfire outreach and education materials, good contact for community-based project ideas and funding sources.

Hawaii State Wildfire History offers an online, interactive map of wildfire incidences across Hawaii State compiled from county, state, and federal records. Check out the wildfire history in your neighborhood.

NOAA fire weather for Hawaii gives fire weather prediction and warning, based on current wind conditions and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index.

The Hawaii Drought Monitor website provides a current statewide spatial map of drought conditions.

The DOFAW Fire Management website includes an overview of the Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife Fire Management Program with links to annual reports, jurisdiction maps, operations policy, and other fire-related websites.

Joint Fire Science Program is a national program with information on funding opportunities, a huge database of wildfire research findings, and links to the regional Fire Science Exchanges. 

The Fire-Adapted Communities website provides resource for homeowners and communities to reduce wildfire risk.

Firewise offers homeowner resources on everything from creating defensible space, to landscaping recommendations, to fire-proofing homes.

Fire Research and Management Exchange System is an information exchange program with online access to wildfire related documents, data, tools, and other information resources. 

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Wood and Other Forest Products

adobe reader icon Some Woods of Hawaii: Properties and Uses of 16 Commercial Species. A summary of wood properties testing carried out by the USDA Forest Service. General Technical Report PSW-8, 1974. 

The UH Termite Project web page includes information for both builders and homeowners and features pages on naturally durable woods (including some Hawaii-grown woods) and wood preservatives.

Hawaii’s Woodshow™ Na La’au o Hawaii, is the Hawaii Forest Industry Association’s annual juried woodworking exhibition. The WoodShow features heirloom quality works made from koa, mango, kamani, milo, and other Hawaii-grown woods.

Photo galleries of Hawaii's Woodshow are available on the Hawaii Forestry Industry Association website.

The Bishop Museum publishes a Hawaiian Online Ethnobotany Database with cultural and scientific information about 145 plants commonly used in traditional Hawaiian culture including microscopic photos of Hawaiian woods.

Hundreds of scanning electron microscope images of Hawaiian wood anatomy, taken in the 1980s by Charles H. Lamoureux, have recently been posted by University of Hawaii Museum.

The Hawaii Agriculture Research Center publishes guides to Determining Wood Properties of Acacia koa, Wood Ear (Pepeiao) Production in Forest Understory, and Specialty Crop Production in a Forestry Understory: Olena, Maile, Papapalai, and 'Awa.

The Maui Woodworkers Guild site contains information on woodworkers on Maui and the species of wood they use.

Information about wood properties of 16 Hawaii-grown trees, both native and introduced, is given in the publication Some Common Woods of Hawaii, R. G. Skolmen, USDA Forest Service.

The USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory web site publishes information sheets on dendrology and wood properties of many tropical trees taken from Martin Chudnoff's book Tropical Timbers of the World (USDA FS Agriculture Handbook No. 607).

The USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory web site publishes kiln schedules for drying 270 North American and tropical species of hardwood lumber (including koa) and estimated schedules for 3,200 other hardwood species. Many other publications on wood technology are on-line, including the reference Tropical Timbers of the World. The Center for Wood Anatomy Research, part of the Forest Products Laboratory, publishes an on-line index to properties of tropical woods.

North Carolina State’s Inside Wood database “integrates wood anatomical information from the literature and original observations into an internet-accessible database useful for research and teaching. The database contains brief descriptions of fossil and modern woody dicots (hardwoods) from more than 200 plant families, and has over 35,000 images showing anatomical details. Note: Gymnosperm woods (softwoods) are not included.”

The Special Forest Products web site of Virginia Tech publishes information on producing and marketing mushrooms, botanicals, greenery, and other non-timber forest products. Mainly for mainland North America but some tropical information included.

The International Tropical Timber Organization web site contains current information on the timber trade worldwide and news about tropical forestry. The newsletter Tropical Forest Update is available on-line and by mail.

The Non-Wood Forest Products web site of the FAO contains a database of organizations involved with non-wood forest products and an on-line version of the newsletter Non-wood News.

"The Certified Forest Products Council is an independent, not-for-profit, voluntary initiative committed to promoting responsible forest products buying practices throughout North America in an effort to improve forest management practices worldwide." The Council supports the FSC standards.

The Convention on Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) lists tree species which are restricted in international trade. CITES is implemented in the US by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. They publish a timber brochure adobe reader icon that explains what CITES listing of timber species means.

The World Agroforestry Center website includes a Wood Density Database.

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Giant koa tree in the Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaii

Giant koa tree in the Hakalau National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaii

Public support of acts affecting public rights is absolutely required.
-Gifford Pinchot, first Chief, USDA Forest Service